A potential of -2.06 V is the standard cell potential for,
Pt | H2O, [H+] = 1 M | O2 || H2O [OH-] = 1 M | H2 | Pt
And when a potential greater than 2.06 V is applied such that the forward cell has a positive potential, the following reactions take place.
|Anode oxidation||DE||Cathode Reduction|
|H2O = 4 H+ + 4 e + O2||
4 H2O + 4 e = 2 H2 + 4 OH-
|2 H2O = 2 H2 + O2|
Note that the acid and base must be separated by a salt bridge to prevent the neutralization reaction. This cell potential is different from the cell potential for the reverse reaction in pure water, for which [H+] = [OH-] = 10-7, and E° is 1.23 V.
Electrolysis result in case of water: 2 H2O --> 2 H2 + O2 (2 molecules of water turn into 2 atoms of Hydrogen, plus one Oxygen pair)
Combustion (the burning of the above gases): 2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O (the same in reverse - 2 atoms of Hydrogen and the Oxygen pair turn back to pure water, releasing some energy in the process!)
The recorded successes in decomposing water using electrolysis:
NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C.]:
In their Technical Note Report E-9105 from May 1977, NASA says:
"Adding hydrogen to gasoline significantly increased flame speed and allows for a leaner air-fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions. ...significantly increased flame speed and allows for a leaner air/fuel ratio. All emissions levels decreased at these leaner conditions."
California Environmental Engineering (CEE):
"CEE feels that the result of this test verifies that this technology is a viable source for reducing emissions and fuel consumption on large diesel engines."
The American Hydrogen Association Test Lab:
"Emissions test results indicate that a decrease of toxic emissions". Zero emissions were observed on CO (carbon oxide).
The Society of Automotive Engineers (Troy, Michigan):
If you were under the impression that American automotive engineers (Detroit) are unaware of the benefits of hydrogen-on-demand, here's a wake-up pile of evidence; just a few of the many references from their official publications of the last 35 years!!! Proof that they KNOW all about it but say noting to the public:
• Adding hydrogen to gasoline causes significant efficiency improvements due to the extension of the lean operating limit. [Feb.74]
•...showed a potential for very low pollutant emissions with increased energy efficiency. [Feb.81]
•...produces improvements in engine efficiency and emissions, due to accelerated combustion. [Feb.96]
•...can reduce exhaust emissions and increase efficiency. A large reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions can be achieved without a catalytic converter due to very lean operation under certain conditions. [June.2000]
•...increases the flame speed at all gasoline air/fuel ratios, so engine operation at very lean mixtures is possible. [July.02]
•...extended the lean limit of engine operation, resulting in greater efficiency and reduced emissions, both hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides. [Mar.03]
•...reduced knock due to accelerated fuel burn and shortened combustion period. [June.04]
•...produces lower emissions due to increased flame speed and resultant accelerated fuel burn. [Apr.05]
U.S. Department of Transportation:
Do THEY know about hydrogen on demand? You be the judge of that -- here's what they say in their extensive and official publication "Guidelines For The Use Of Hydrogen Fuel In Commercial Trucks, Final Report", November 2007:
"Onboard Electrolyzer are used with hydrogen injection systems for diesel engines. In this case, only a small amount of hydrogen and oxygen are produced to supplement, not replace, the diesel fuel used in the engine. The electricity to operate the Electrolyzer is typically supplied by the engine's alternator or 12/24-VDC electrical system."
HHO is also commonly known as Brown's Gas and comprises (by volume) two parts Hydrogen gas and one part Oxygen gas. It has the same Oxygen and Hydrogen elements and in the same proportions as in water - or in water vapor - therefore Brown's gas is sometimes mistaken to be "water vapor" or something similar. What William Rhodes and Professor Yull Brown discovered was, that HHO is NOT water vapor. It's very different.They discovered that water has more than the usual three states, namely solid (which we call "ice"), liquid (we call it "water") and gas (we call it "water vapor"). It has a forth state called Brown's Gas (HHO).
Brown's Gas is NOT Oxygen plus Hydrogen, like those gases that you might get from a factory supply.
Ordinary Hydrogen and Oxygen gas, when purchased commercially, or when produced by Electrolyzer that separate Hydrogen from Oxygen and LEAVE THEM SEPARATED (not Fuel Pulse Electrolyzer ), these gas mixture comes in the form of O2 and H2. That is, the molecules of both gases form molecules of TWO ATOMS EACH. What we call "diatomic" structure, unlike "mono-atomic" or monatomic in which we have single, NONPAIRED atoms. This is the STABLE STATE for these gases. When individual atoms are separate as molecules (charged ions) of one atom each, they are not stable - they want to pair up.
Now let's try to burn these atom pairs, O2 and H2. It IS a combustible gas mixture, however the problem is that before they can react together (the burning process) to make H2O, we must first break apart each atom pair into separate H and O atoms. Now here's the real problem: the energy we need to do break them apart makes the process non efficient. In other words it can be done, but it does not pay for itself.
What makes Brown's gas unique - and highly valuable for our energy needs - is the fact that the Hydrogen and Oxygen have not formed into O2 and H2 molecules. They are in their monatomic state - a single atom per molecule! In this state, which is an UNSTABLE STATE, we will get 3.8 times more energy when we burn the Hydrogen with the Oxygen. The reasons:
a) We have the monatomic state which is perfect for the burning process, and
b) We have the perfect balance of ingredients - just the right amount of Oxygen necessary for the Hydrogen to fully and effectively burn.
Below is further documentation discussing Brown's Gas gathered from International Patent App. WO 2005/049051 A1 and U.S. Patent Application US2007/0104797 A1, both referring back to the Brown's Gas books published by Eagle Research
Brown's Gas Theory
Brown's gas is a mixed gas of hydrogen and oxygen (2:1, by volume) created by electrolysis of water. It is thought that Brown's gas also contains considerable water vapor. Generally, electrolysis of water produces a hydrogen gas at cathode and an oxygen gas at anode. These gases are captured at the same time without being separated, and the captured mixed gas is generally known as "Brown's gas."
Brown's gas has several characteristic properties, unlike general gases. The most noticeable property of Brown's gas is implosion upon ignition. For this reason, Brown's gas is known to have ultra- high temperature to an extent that can sublimate (change directly from solid to vapor without first melting) tungsten – a metal that has the highest melting point of all metals!
According to the classic theory (the first theory), Brown's gas is a simple mixed gas of hydrogen and oxygen generated by electrolysis of water, which cannot explain the special characteristics of Brown's gas. Accordingly, new theories about the entity of Brown's gas have been recently introduced.
Experimental results acquired to date show that a mixture of oxygen and hydrogen generated by a Brown's gas generator has remarkably larger reactivity than an equal amount of another mixture of oxygen and hydrogen.
The second theory about Brown's gas is that Brown's gas is a mixture of diatomic (each molecule made up of two atoms) hydrogen/oxygen and monatomic (element consisting of a single atom) hydrogen/oxygen.
The recently published third theory is that electrolysis of water produces third gas bubbles between a cathode and an anode, in addition to a molecular hydrogen gas at the cathode and a molecular oxygen gas at the anode. According to this third theory, it is thought that Brown's gas is a special "water gas" in which the hydrogen gas, the oxygen gas, and the third gas bubbles are mixed, i.e., Brown's gas is not steam but "electrically expanded water."
The characteristics of Brown's gas disclosed to date are as follows:
Brown's gas contains high energy, and in particular, generates cold flame with tremendous energy potential upon ignition. Brown's gas is a special and highly efficient medium that transmits electrical energy to the atomic structure of a material and exhibits special effects that are often unobtainable by any other means. Brown's gas is essentially easy to handle, is odorless, and is harmless to the human body even when inhaled.
Further, Brown's gas is lighter than air, diffuses rapidly in air, and has a high initial flammability limit, which makes it safer than other combustible gases. Due to these characteristics, Brown's gas has received interest as a next generation fuel, in particular, as a clean fuel that produces no pollutants, unlike a waste fuel producing pollutants, and thus, research into utility of Brown's gas as a fuel has been actively conducted.
Source: International Patent App. WO 2005/049051 A1 and U.S. Patent Application US2007/0104797 A1, both referring back to the Brown's Gas books published by Eagle Research
According to our extensive road tests in India .your "Fuel Pulse" mileage booster device is expected to produce the following immediate results for your vehicle :